The potential of tailoring the gut microbiome to prevent and treat cardiometabolic disease

Research output: Contribution to journalReviewResearchpeer-review

  • Rima Mohsen Chakaroun
  • Lisa M Olsson
  • Fredrik Bäckhed

Despite milestones in preventive measures and treatment, cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains associated with a high burden of morbidity and mortality. The protracted nature of the development and progression of CVD motivates the identification of early and complementary targets that might explain and alleviate any residual risk in treated patients. The gut microbiota has emerged as a sentinel between our inner milieu and outer environment and relays a modified risk associated with these factors to the host. Accordingly, numerous mechanistic studies in animal models support a causal role of the gut microbiome in CVD via specific microbial or shared microbiota-host metabolites and have identified converging mammalian targets for these signals. Similarly, large-scale cohort studies have repeatedly reported perturbations of the gut microbial community in CVD, supporting the translational potential of targeting this ecological niche, but the move from bench to bedside has not been smooth. In this Review, we provide an overview of the current evidence on the interconnectedness of the gut microbiome and CVD against the noisy backdrop of highly prevalent confounders in advanced CVD, such as increased metabolic burden and polypharmacy. We further aim to conceptualize the molecular mechanisms at the centre of these associations and identify actionable gut microbiome-based targets, while contextualizing the current knowledge within the clinical scenario and emphasizing the limitations of the field that need to be overcome.

Original languageEnglish
JournalNature Reviews Cardiology
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2022

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