Peptides in the regulation of glucagon secretion

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Glucose homeostasis is maintained by the glucoregulatory hormones, glucagon, insulin and somatostatin, secreted from the islets of Langerhans. Glucagon is the body's most important anti-hypoglycemic hormone, mobilizing glucose from glycogen stores in the liver in response to fasting, thus maintaining plasma glucose levels within healthy limits. Glucagon secretion is regulated by both circulating nutrients, hormones and neuronal inputs. Hormones that may regulate glucagon secretion include locally produced insulin and somatostatin, but also urocortin-3, amylin and pancreatic polypeptide, and from outside the pancreas glucagon-like peptide-1 and 2, peptide tyrosine tyrosine and oxyntomodulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, neurotensin and ghrelin, as well as the hypothalamic hormones arginine-vasopressin and oxytocin, and calcitonin from the thyroid. Each of these hormones have distinct effects, ranging from regulating blood glucose, to regulating appetite, stomach emptying rate and intestinal motility, which makes them interesting targets for treating metabolic diseases. Awareness regarding the potential effects of the hormones on glucagon secretion is important since secretory abnormalities could manifest as hyperglycemia or even lethal hypoglycemia. Here, we review the effects of each individual hormone on glucagon secretion, their interplay, and how treatments aimed at modulating the plasma levels of these hormones may also influence glucagon secretion and glycemic control.

Original languageEnglish
Article number170683
Number of pages19
Publication statusPublished - 2022

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© 2021 The Author(s)

    Research areas

  • Diabetes, Gastrointestinal tract, Glucagon, Hypothalamus, Pancreas, Peptides

ID: 287115677