Counterregulatory hormone and symptom responses to hypoglycaemia in people with type 1 diabetes, insulin-treated type 2 diabetes or without diabetes: the Hypo-RESOLVE hypoglycaemic clamp study

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Aim: The sympathetic nervous and hormonal counterregulatory responses to hypoglycaemia differ between people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes and may change along the course of diabetes, but have not been directly compared. We aimed to compare counterregulatory hormone and symptom responses to hypoglycaemia between people with type 1 diabetes, insulin-treated type 2 diabetes and controls without diabetes, using a standardised hyperinsulinaemic-hypoglycaemic clamp. Materials: We included 47 people with type 1 diabetes, 15 with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes, and 32 controls without diabetes. Controls were matched according to age and sex to the people with type 1 diabetes or with type 2 diabetes. All participants underwent a hyperinsulinaemic–euglycaemic-(5.2 ± 0.4 mmol/L)-hypoglycaemic-(2.8 ± 0.13 mmol/L)-clamp. Results: The glucagon response was lower in people with type 1 diabetes (9.4 ± 0.8 pmol/L, 8.0 [7.0–10.0]) compared to type 2 diabetes (23.7 ± 3.7 pmol/L, 18.0 [12.0–28.0], p < 0.001) and controls (30.6 ± 4.7, 25.5 [17.8–35.8] pmol/L, p < 0.001). The adrenaline response was lower in type 1 diabetes (1.7 ± 0.2, 1.6 [1.3–5.2] nmol/L) compared to type 2 diabetes (3.4 ± 0.7, 2.6 [1.3–5.2] nmol/L, p = 0.001) and controls (2.7 ± 0.4, 2.8 [1.4–3.9] nmol/L, p = 0.012). Growth hormone was lower in people with type 2 diabetes than in type 1 diabetes, at baseline (3.4 ± 1.6 vs 7.7 ± 1.3 mU/L, p = 0.042) and during hypoglycaemia (24.7 ± 7.1 vs 62.4 ± 5.8 mU/L, p = 0.001). People with 1 diabetes had lower overall symptom responses than people with type 2 diabetes (45.3 ± 2.7 vs 58.7 ± 6.4, p = 0.018), driven by a lower neuroglycopenic score (27.4 ± 1.8 vs 36.7 ± 4.2, p = 0.012). Conclusion: Acute counterregulatory hormone and symptom responses to experimental hypoglycaemia are lower in people with type 1 diabetes than in those with long-standing insulin-treated type 2 diabetes and controls.

Original languageEnglish
JournalActa Diabetologica
ISSN0940-5429
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2024

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Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2024.

    Research areas

  • Counterregulatory response, Diabetes, Hyperinsulinaemic–hypoglycaemic clamp, Hypoglycaemia

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