Glutamine Regulates Skeletal Muscle Immunometabolism in Type 2 Diabetes

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Dysregulation of skeletal muscle metabolism influences whole body insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. We hypothesized that type 2 diabetes-associated alterations in the plasma metabolome directly contributes to skeletal muscle immunometabolism and the subsequent development of insulin resistance. To this end, we analyzed the plasma and skeletal muscle metabolite profile and identified glutamine as a key amino acid that was inversely correlating with body mass index (BMI) and HOMA-IR index in people with normal glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes. Using an in vitro model of human myotubes and an in vivo model of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice, we provide evidence that glutamine levels directly influence the inflammatory response of skeletal muscle and regulates the expression of the adaptor protein GRB10, an inhibitor of insulin signaling. Moreover, we demonstrate that a systemic increase of glutamine levels in a mouse model of obesity improves insulin sensitivity and restores glucose homeostasis. We conclude that glutamine supplementation may represent a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent or delay the onset of insulin resistance in obesity by reducing inflammatory markers and promoting skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity.

Original languageEnglish
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)624-636
Publication statusPublished - 2022

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© 2022 by the American Diabetes Association.

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