High-throughput proteomics uncovers exercise training and type 2 diabetes-induced changes in human white adipose tissue

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White adipose tissue (WAT) is important for metabolic homeostasis. We established the differential proteomic signatures of WAT in glucose-tolerant lean and obese individuals and patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the response to 8 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Using a high-throughput and reproducible mass spectrometry-based proteomics pipeline, we identified 3773 proteins and found that most regulated proteins displayed progression in markers of dysfunctional WAT from lean to obese to T2D individuals and were highly associated with clinical measures such as insulin sensitivity and HbA1c. We propose that these distinct markers could serve as potential clinical biomarkers. HIIT induced only minor changes in the WAT proteome. This included an increase in WAT ferritin levels independent of obesity and T2D, and WAT ferritin levels were strongly correlated with individual insulin sensitivity. Together, we report a proteomic signature of WAT related to obesity and T2D and highlight an unrecognized role of human WAT iron metabolism in exercise training adaptations.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbereadi7548
JournalScience Advances
Issue number48
Number of pages16
Publication statusPublished - 2023

ID: 378809986