Nutrition, -Omics, and Cardiometabolic Diseases in the Guasch Group
The Guasch Group focuses on investigating the role of dietary and lifestyle factors in cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Our goal is to incorporate high-throughput –omics techniques into traditional epidemiological analysis to gain insights into underlying mechanisms.
Our research group focuses on integrating nutrition and lifestyle factors with –omics data to advance in the prevention of non-communicable diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes.
One of our major research focuses is to study the interplay between diet and lifestyle, metabolomics, and cardiometabolic diseases by identifying metabolite profiles and networks associated with cardiometabolic diseases and how diet and lifestyle may modulate these associations.
Another central research focus is nutritional epidemiology. We evaluate the association between several dietary factors, dietary patterns, and their relationship with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and mortality in the context of large prospective cohort studies and clinical trials.
Finally, by leveraging large cohort studies and clinical trials with dietary data and metabolomics, we aim to advance in the field of precision nutrition by improving objective dietary biomarkers through the integration of -omics data and evaluate their association with cardiovascular diseases.
Olive oil intake is associated with lower risk of total and cause-specific mortality
Published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology in 2022, this study was a prospective large cohort study including more than 90000 participants who were followed for up to 28 years. The study showed that higher olive oil intake was associated with lower risk of total and cause-specific mortality, specifically cardiovascular disease mortality. Replacing margarine, butter, mayonnaise, and dairy fat with olive oil was associated with lower risk of mortality.
Divergent associations between MUFA from different sources and total and cause-specific mortality
Published in Circulation Research in 2019, using data from two large prospective cohort studies, we showed that higher intake of monounsaturated fatty acids from plant sources was associated with lower total mortality, and monounsaturated fatty acids from animal sources intake was associated with higher mortality.
Nut Consumption and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease.
Published in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology in 2017, this study showed that in three large prospective cohort studies, higher consumption of total and specific types of nuts was inversely associated with total cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease. Our findings support recommendations of increasing the intake of a variety of nuts as part of healthy dietary patterns to reduce the risk of chronic diseases in the general population.
Glycolysis/gluconeogenesis- and tricarboxylic acid cycle-related metabolites, Mediterranean diet, and type 2 diabetes
Published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in 2020, we identified a panel of glycolysis/gluconeogenesis-related metabolites that was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes risk in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular disease risk. In addition, we showed that a Mediterranean Diet could counteract the detrimental effects of these metabolites.
Published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism in 2019, we found that an acylcarnitine profile, mainly including short- and long-chain acylcarnitines, was significantly associated with higher type 2 diabetes risk in participants at high cardiovascular risk. However, the inclusion of acylcarnitines into the model did not significantly improve the T2D prediction C-statistics beyond traditional risk factors, including fasting glucose.